Types of Banks in India: A Comprehensive Guide

Explore the diverse landscape of Types of Banks in India with Fianancelti. This comprehensive guide covers the various types of banks, their services, and their role in the Indian financial system.

In the Indian economy, banks play a crucial role in facilitating financial transactions and providing various financial services to individuals, businesses, and governments. These institutions accept deposits, grant loans, facilitate transactions, and offer a wide range of financial products. Understanding the functions of banks is essential for anyone looking to navigate the financial landscape. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the different types of banks in India and delve into their specific roles and functions. Read More.

Types of Banks in India

Types of Banks in India can be classified into different types based on their specific purpose and the target audience they serve. Understanding the different Types of Banks in India can help you choose the right one to meet your banking needs. So, let’s explore the primary types of banks in India and what makes them unique.anking needs. So, let’s explore the primary types of banks in India and what makes them unique.

1. Central Bank

The central bank in India is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). As the apex regulatory authority, the RBI oversees and regulates all other banks operating in the country. It acts as the banker’s bank and plays a crucial role in maintaining financial stability and implementing monetary policies.

2. Commercial Banks

Commercial banks are the most common types of banks in India. They are organized under the Banking Companies Act, 1956, and provide a wide range of financial services to individuals, businesses, and other organizations. Commercial banks can be further classified into three categories:

a) Public Sector Banks

Public sector banks are owned and operated by the government. They play a vital role in the Indian banking system and cater to various sectors of the economy. Some prominent public sector banks include the State Bank of India (SBI), Punjab National Bank (PNB), and Bank of Baroda (BOB).

b) Private Sector Banks

Private sector banks are owned and operated by private individuals or companies. These banks have gained prominence in recent years and offer innovative financial products and services. Examples of private sector banks in India include HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, and Axis Bank.

c) Foreign Banks

Foreign banks have their headquarters in foreign countries but operate branches in India. These banks bring in foreign investment, contribute to economic growth, and provide specialized financial services. Notable foreign banks in India include Citibank, Standard Chartered, and HSBC.

3. Cooperative Banks

Cooperative banks are registered under the Cooperative Societies Act, 1912, and are run by elected managing committees. These banks primarily serve the needs of specific communities, industries, or sectors. They play a crucial role in promoting social welfare and providing financial resources to rural and urban areas. Cooperative banks can be further categorized into two types:

a) State Cooperative Banks

State Cooperative Banks are federations of central cooperative banks within a state. These banks act as custodians of the cooperative banking structure at the state level. They provide financial services and credit to individuals and businesses within their respective states.

b) Urban Cooperative Banks

Urban Cooperative Banks primarily operate in urban and semi-urban areas. They cater to the financial needs of specific communities or localities. These banks offer a range of banking services, including savings accounts, loans, and other financial products.

4. Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)

Regional Rural Banks were established to provide concessional credit to the agriculture and rural sectors. These banks are jointly owned by the government, commercial banks, and state governments. RRBs play a pivotal role in promoting financial inclusion and rural development.

5. Payments Banks

Introduced in 2015, Payments Banks are a new form of banking in India. These banks focus on providing basic banking services, such as savings accounts, money transfers, and bill payments. However, they are not allowed to provide loans or issue credit cards. Payments Banks aim to promote financial inclusion and facilitate cashless transactions.

6. Small Finance Banks

Small Finance Banks cater to the financial needs of underserved sections of the population, including small businesses and low-income individuals. These banks were established in 2015 and are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. Small Finance Banks offer a range of banking services, including savings accounts, loans, and investment products.

7. Specialized Banks

Specialized banks focus on specific sectors or industries and provide specialized financial services. These banks play a crucial role in supporting targeted development and growth. Some examples of specialized banks in India include the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), Export and Import Bank (EXIM Bank), and National Bank for Agricultural & Rural Development (NABARD).

8. Other Types of Banks

Apart from the aforementioned types, there are several other types of banks in India, such as community development banks, land development banks, and housing finance banks. Each of these banks serves a specific purpose and caters to the unique financial needs of different sectors of the economy.

Functions of Banks

Irrespective of their types, banks perform similar core functions that form the backbone of the financial system. Let’s explore the primary functions of Types of Banks in India:

1. Accepting Deposits

One of the fundamental functions of banks is to accept deposits from individuals, businesses, and other organizations. Banks offer various types of deposit accounts, such as savings accounts, current accounts, and fixed deposit accounts. Depositors can securely store their money with banks and earn interest on their deposits.

2. Providing Loans and Credit

Banks play a vital role in providing loans and credit to individuals and businesses. They evaluate the creditworthiness of borrowers and grant loans for various purposes, including personal loans, home loans, business loans, and agricultural loans. Banks also provide credit facilities like overdrafts and credit cards.

3. Facilitating Payments and Settlements

Banks act as intermediaries in facilitating transactions and enabling the smooth flow of funds. They offer various payment methods, including checks, debit cards, credit cards, and electronic transfers. Banks play a crucial role in ensuring the safe and efficient transfer of funds between individuals, businesses, and governments.

4. Currency Exchange

Many banks in India provide foreign exchange services, allowing customers to buy, sell, or exchange foreign currencies. These services are essential for individuals and businesses engaged in international trade and travel. Banks ensure the availability of foreign currencies and facilitate seamless currency exchange.

5. Safekeeping of Valuables

Some banks offer safe deposit boxes or lockers to customers for securely storing valuable items, documents, and other assets. These safe deposit boxes provide an additional layer of security and protection for customers’ valuable possessions.

6. Investment Services

Banks offer a range of investment products and services, allowing individuals and businesses to grow their wealth. These services include investment advisory, mutual funds, stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments. Banks play a crucial role in guiding customers in making informed investment decisions.

7. Internet Banking Services

With the advent of technology, banks have embraced online and mobile banking services. Customers can access their accounts, check balances, transfer funds, pay bills, and perform various banking transactions through internet banking platforms and mobile apps. These services provide convenience and accessibility to customers.

8. Miscellaneous Functions

Apart from the core functions mentioned above, banks provide various other services to meet the diverse financial needs of individuals and businesses. These services may include issuing drafts, providing customers with locker facilities, assisting with foreign exchange transactions, and offering specialized financial services based on their respective types and focus areas.

Types of Bank Accounts in India

In addition to the various Types of Banks in India, India offers a variety of bank accounts to cater to the needs of different individuals and businesses. Let’s explore some of the common types of bank accounts in India:

1. Savings Account

A savings account is a basic account offered by banks that allows individuals to deposit and withdraw money. It typically offers a nominal interest rate on the deposited amount. Savings accounts are suitable for individuals looking to save money while having the flexibility to access their funds.

2. Current Account

A current account is primarily designed for businesses and organizations to facilitate frequent transactions. It allows unlimited deposits and withdrawals and offers services like checkbooks, overdraft facilities, and electronic banking options. Current accounts generally do not pay interest on deposits.

3. Fixed Deposit Account

A fixed deposit account allows individuals to deposit a lump sum amount for a fixed period at a higher interest rate compared to savings accounts. The deposited amount remains locked-in until maturity. Fixed deposits are a popular investment option for individuals looking for a secure and predictable return on their savings.

4. Recurring Deposit Account

A recurring deposit account allows individuals to deposit a fixed amount of money regularly for a specified period. At the end of the tenure, the account holder receives the principal amount along with the interest earned. Recurring deposits are suitable for individuals looking to save systematically over time.

5. NRI (Non-Resident Indian) Account

NRI accounts are designed for Indians living abroad. These accounts cater to the specific financial needs of non-resident Indians, providing them with a convenient way to manage their finances in India. NRI accounts include NRE (Non-Resident External), NRO (Non-Resident Ordinary), and FCNR (Foreign Currency Non-Residential) accounts.

6. Demat Account

A Demat account is used to hold and trade securities electronically, such as stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. It eliminates the need for physical share certificates and enables seamless buying, selling, and transfer of securities.

7. Joint Account

A joint account allows two or more individuals to share ownership and access to a single bank account. Joint accounts are commonly used by family members, business partners, or individuals sharing expenses. All account holders have equal rights and responsibilities regarding the account.

8. Minor Account

Minor accounts are opened on behalf of minors by their parents or guardians. These accounts are managed by the parent or guardian until the minor reaches a specified age. Minor accounts help inculcate financial discipline and educate minors about banking and savings.

9. Corporate Account

Corporate accounts are specifically designed for companies and corporations to manage their banking needs. These accounts offer various services, including payroll management, transaction processing, cash management, and financing options.

These are just some of the Types of Banks accounts available in India. Each account serves specific purposes and caters to different financial needs.


What are the different types of banks in India?

Types of Banks in India, including central banks, commercial banks (public sector, private sector, and foreign banks), cooperative banks, regional rural banks, payments banks, small finance banks, specialized banks, and others.

What are the primary functions of banks in India?

The primary functions of banks in India include accepting deposits, providing loans and credit, facilitating payments and settlements, currency exchange, safekeeping of valuables, investment services, internet banking services, and miscellaneous functions.

What are the different types of bank accounts available in India?

Some common types of bank accounts in India include savings accounts, current accounts, fixed deposit accounts, recurring deposit accounts, NRI accounts, demat accounts, joint accounts, minor accounts, and corporate accounts.


Types of Banks in India play a crucial role in the country’s economy by providing essential financial services to individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding the functions of banks and the different types of banks in India is essential for anyone looking to navigate the financial landscape effectively. Whether it’s accepting deposits, providing loans, facilitating transactions, or offering specialized financial services, banks serve as the backbone of the Indian economy. By catering to diverse financial needs and promoting financial inclusion, banks contribute significantly to the growth and development of the nation.

Also Read : Banking System Basics: Understanding How Banks Work

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